To sustain student motivation and responsible learning, it is vital to share expectations at the beginning of the unit of study and engage in ongoing feedback throughout the learning process. Today’s students want to be aware of what they must know and be able to do prior to instruction, as well as progress of their learnings. If the goal is for learners to take responsibilities for their learning and transfer understandings into new situations, then teachers must provide clear descriptions of key knowledge and skills. 

Danielson (2003) expresses effective student learning feedback in terms of formative assessment that supports learning, not high stakes tests.

Educators who want to ensure student learning must make use of formative assessment and feedback. Formative assessments are standards-based but have as their sole purpose student learning; There are no immediate consequences for poor performance ~ thus no high stakes. These are designed only to support learning.